What Type of Legal System Does England and Wales Have

Queen Elizabeth II remains the constitutional monarch of each empire in its own right and retains a limited number of powers (royal privilege) that can be exercised in person or by a local viceroy. Most of the powers are irrevocably delegated to a parliament more or less modelled on the Westminster system. Since 2007, the Senedd (Welsh Parliament; Welsh: Senedd Cymru), formerly known as the National Assembly for Wales, was given legislative powers. It is located in Cardiff. The Senedd, first elected in 1999, is a democratically elected body of 60 members known as members of the Senedd or the MS. Members are elected for a five-year term in accordance with the system of additional representation of members. As a result, 40 Member States represent individual geographical constituencies elected under the first-past-the-post system, with another 20 representing five additional Member Regions, each region electing four Member States. The Department of Constitutional Affairs (DCA) was established in 2003 and replaced the Department of the Lord Chancellor. His new responsibilities include the implementation and administration of the justice system, human rights, and electoral and constitutional reform. The TCA administers the Courts Service (see under Judicial System below) and oversees the appointment of judges. The role of Lord Chancellor was changed, with the incumbent being renamed Secretary of State for Constitutional Affairs and Lord Chancellor, relinquishing his functions as Speaker of the House of Lords and (especially) as Judge. These amendments were introduced by the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (see explanatory notes to the Act).

The Act also made significant changes to the courts and the justice system. See below for more details. Each jurisdiction has a locally elected parliament with broad, but not unlimited, autonomy. The British monarchy retains responsibility for the defence, citizenship and foreign affairs of the dependent territories and has delegated this responsibility to the British Government and Parliament. The British Parliament usually acts in consultation or seeks the consent of the local government when passing laws that are effective in dependencies. Residents of dependent territories are not represented in the UK Parliament. British law does not apply to dependencies unless explicitly stated, and these laws are almost always enforced by the monarch in the form of a decree. The question of whether the British Parliament retains the power to pass laws against the will of local governments is controversial and has been tested with the Marine, &c., Broadcasting (Offences) Act 1967. Some countries gained their independence through an Act of the British Parliament (e.B.dem Statute of Westminster of 1931) and they also departed from British law under or under British rule.

An example at the other end of the spectrum, despite occasional control for geopolitical reasons, British law has had little influence on Afghan law. Corporate law deals with the formation and regulation of companies and corporations that are separate from the people who own them (usually by acquiring shares of the company`s NPV) called «members» and those who manage and direct their activities, called «directors». If a company`s debt exceeds its income and capital, it becomes insolvent and can be transferred to management or eventually liquidated. There may be claims from different classes of creditors and regulatory proceedings may be initiated against directors. Company law covers all these issues. For historical reasons, the United Kingdom, as a state composed of several different jurisdictions, does not have a uniform legal system. The Office of the Lord Chancellor was the clearest example of how the British Constitution did not separate or mix the three branches of the state. The Lord Chancellor was a high-ranking minister and thus a member of the executive, a judge and head of the judiciary of England and Wales, as well as a member of the legislature, or even the person who presided over the deliberations of the House of Lords, in fact his spokesman. One office included and combined the three branches of government. This could have been acceptable when the office was created. However, its continued existence in this form had been questioned several times over the past two hundred years.

More famously, it was criticized by Walter Bagehot in The English Constitution (1867) in the following words: The United Kingdom has three different legal systems; one for England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. This reflects its historical origins and the fact that Scotland and Ireland and later Northern Ireland retained their own legal systems and traditions under the Acts of Union of 1707 and 1800. This website deals with the justice of England and Wales. We briefly mention the Courts Service, which covers Scotland, and the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, which has been responsible for the whole of the United Kingdom since its replacement of the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords in October 2009. Directgov is the UK government website that serves as the main information point for all public services. The website contains an A-Z index for all departments, agencies and other public or quasi-governmental bodies and is the gateway to a rich resource of documents on departmental websites. .